Part 63: Data Representation
(Project Scope Management: Collect Requirements)
(Project Quality Management: Plan Quality Management)
(Project Quality Management: Manage Quality)
(Project Quality Management: Control Quality)
(Project Resource Management: Plan Resource Management)
(Project Communications Management: Plan Communications Management)
(Project Communications Management: Monitor Communications)
(Project Risk Management: Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis)
(Project Stakeholder Management: Identify Stakeholders)
(Project Stakeholder Management: Plan Stakeholder Engagement)
(Project Stakeholder Management: Monitor Stakeholder Engagement)

  • How do we represent our data (which we obtained from the Data Gathering Tool)?
    • Affinity Diagrams
      • Classify the different types of data into groups
    • Assignment Matrix (RAM)
      • Also known as a Resource Assignment Matrix
      • Shows the resource that is assigned to each work package
      • Because it’s a matrix, we can see all the activities that a person is responsible for, and all the people who are responsible for an activity
      • For each task, only one person should be responsible
      • An RACI (Responsible, Accountable, Consult, Inform) chart is a special kind of RAM
        • The RACI lists tasks in the first column
        • The RACI also lists the resources assigned to each task, categorized by their level of responsibility (Responsible, Accountable, Consult, or Inform)
    • Cause-and-Effect Diagram
      • Known as a fishbone diagram, why-why diagram, or Ishikawa diagram
      • Breaks a problem down into smaller and smaller branches until we reach the root cause
    • Directions of Influence
      • Classifies stakeholders by their influence on the project or position with the team
      • Upward = organization’s senior management and/or sponsor
      • Downward = members of the project team
      • Outward = stakeholders are outside the project team (government, vendors, public, customers, etc.)
      • Sideward = project manager’s peers, such as other project managers
    • Flowcharts
      • A flowchart connects activities and decision points
      • A SIPOC is a flowchart that connects suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, and customers
      • A flowchart that shows the steps in a process is also known as a process flow diagram
      • We can use a flow chart to identify areas where we can implement quality inspections, and where defects exist
    • Hierarchical Chart
      • Graphically demonstrates how items relate to each other, from the top-down
      • We can include
        • Work Breakdown Structures (WBS)
          • How the entire project breaks down into different work packages and deliverables
          • Shows us who is responsible for each deliverable
        • Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)
          • Shows us the different departments, units, and teams in the organization; how they report to each other; and the responsibilities for each of them
          • Each department or team can look at the OBS and determine which portions of the project they are responsible for
        • Resource Breakdown Structure
          • List of the team and physical resources required by the project
          • The resources first sorted by large categories, down into more specific categories
          • For example, if we were designing a vehicle, one category could me “metal”, the sub-categories would be “steel”, “aluminum”, and “magnesium”, and the sub-sub-categories for steel could be “carbon steel”, “steel plates”, and “steel bars”
      • We may need the Hierarchical Chart when we have more than two parameters
        • We can use a bubble chart to plot three parameters
        • We can also use 3D charts
    • Histogram
      • A graph of our numerical data
      • Helps us visually represent our data
      • Can help us with quality management
    • Logical Data Model
      • Visual representation of an organization’s data
      • Described in the language of business
      • We can use the Logical Data Model to identify areas where quality issues can occur
    • Matrix Diagram
      • Shows us the relationship between different factors
      • We can identify areas where quality can be improved by seeing how different factors relate to each other
    • Mind Mapping
      • Helps us visually organize our data
      • Take many ideas from brainstorming and try to connect them together into a map
    • Probability and Impact Matrix
      • Grid for mapping the probability of each risk with its impact on the project
      • Allows us to divide risks into different priority groups, based on their probability and impact
        • A high probability and low impact risk may be low priority
        • A low probability and high impact may also be low priority
      • A risk may have a different impact on each objective (cost, time, and scope).  Therefore, we may create a separate matrix for each.  For example, a delay in raw materials would impact the schedule but not cost.
    • Power/Interest Diagram, Power/Influence Grid, Impact/Influence Grid
      • We use this to plot stakeholders according to their power, interest, and influence
      • Used when the stakeholder relationships are simple
      • Power = level of authority
      • Interest = concern about project outcomes
      • Influence = ability to influence the project
    • Prioritization
      • When we have a large number of stakeholders, we should prioritize them according to importance
    • Salience Model
      • Categorizes stakeholders based on Power, Urgency, and Legitimacy
      • We use the Salience Model when we have many stakeholders, and their relationships are complicated
      • Power = ability to impact the project
      • Urgency = need for attention
      • Legitimacy = involvement is appropriate
    • Scatter Diagram
      • A graph that shows a relationship between two variables
    • Stakeholder Cube
      • Stakeholder cube is like the Power/Interest Diagram, Power/Influence Grid, Impact/Influence Grid, but in three dimensions
    • Stakeholder Engagement Assessment Matrix
      • Each stakeholder has a desired level of engagement (the level we want them to be engaged at), and an actual level of engagement (the level they are currently engaged at)
      • The Matrix allows us to compare the two levels
      • The levels are
        • Unaware
          • Stakeholder is unaware of the project
        • Resistant
          • Stakeholder is aware of the project but resists changes
          • Stakeholder does not support the project
        • Neutral
          • Stakeholder is neither supportive nor unsupportive
        • Supportive
          • Supports the project
        • Leading
          • Stakeholder is aware of the project
          • Stakeholder is actively taking measures to ensure that the project is successful